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Copper. Fire refining of blister copper.

10 May 2012
Copper. Fire refining of blister copper.


Copper, obtained in a wide variety of

Technological schemes is very

Good collector for most

Colored and especially noble metals.

Rough copper can contain up to 4%

Impurities that make it unsuitable for

Direct use

Consumers. Among the most frequent

The impurities present in it can

Be called S; Fe; Ni; Pb; As; Sb; Bi; Sn; Zn; Se; Te;

Au; Ag , etc. The presence of large

Amount of both harmful and valuable

Impurities necessitate the

Its obligatory refining.


Blister copper for economic

Considerations consistently

two ways. First purification of copper

From a number of the most active impurities with

Their high content is conducted by the method of

Fire (oxidative) refining,

And then electrolytically.

Cleaning from harmful impurities first

Is carried out in the operation of a fire

Refining of blister copper. Fire

Or anodic refining is based on

The affinity of metals for oxygen. Impurities,

Possessing a higher affinity for

Oxygen in comparison with copper, are removed

In the slag or in the gas phase. Process

Is carried out in a periodic mode in

Stationary or rotary kilns.

There are three options for organizing

Refining of blister copper in industrial


  1. Both stages of refining are carried out in the same enterprise, where black copper is smelted. In this case, copper (oxidative) refining copper comes in a molten state from specially installed mixers (copiers) of smelting.
  2. Both refining stages are carried out at special refineries, to which copper is fed in ingots weighing up to 1500 kg. This technology requires a re-melting of the rough metal, but allows on-site processing of anode remnants of the electrolysis process and technological waste.
  3. Fire refining of liquid blister copper is carried out at copper smelters, and electrolysis of the anodes obtained in this way is carried out centrally at special enterprises.

The third

Blister copper refining option

At domestic factories



Only electrolytic

Refining, but without prior

Purification of copper electrolysis becomes

Excessively expensive and cumbersome. Composition

And the quality of marketable copper produced

After the final electrolytic

Refining, must comply

The highest grade of copper containing not less than

99.99% Cu. At the same time it is regulated

Maximum content of 10 impurities

(Bi; As; Sb; Fe; Ni; Pb; Sn; S; O; Zn), which is summed

Should not exceed 0.01%.


Fire refining - the most

Common pyrometallurgical

Method of cleaning metals from impurities.

It is used in the preparation of Fe, Ni, Cu, Pb,

Sn , etc. The main goal of the method is oxidation

Copper and the subsequent oxidation of harmful

And excessive impurities by copper oxide, translation

Impurity elements in the form of oxides in

The gas phase or into the oxide (slag)

Phase, which does not dissolve in the metal.

The process is carried out in two stages:

The first oxidizing and the second


Oxidizing agents

In the first oxidative stage of the fire

Refining are: most often

Gaseous oxygen, less often dioxide

Carbon, water vapor, are also used

Condensed oxidants. Oxide

Copper, dissolved in metallic copper

In the second stage it is very easy

Is reduced by gaseous

Reducing agents.

8 May 2012
11 May 2012