Lanthanides — a whole chemical family, which consists of fourteen elements, refers to the third group of the sixth period of the periodic table of DI Mendeleyev. They are used as alloying additives to steels (they improve the mechanical resistance, heat resistance, corrosion resistance), as well as for the production of glass that blocks ionizing radiation. For the production of varnishes and paints, lanthanide compounds are used.
Lanthanum is a light-gray metal, very easily deformable. The mechanical properties depend on the amount of impurities. The entire group of lanthanides has pronounced magnetic properties, which contributes to the creation of various magnetic materials based on them. Their cost is quite affordable.
|Physical properties of La|
|Atomic (molar) mass g / mol||138.9|
|Degree of oxidation||3|
|Density [g / cm 3 ]||6.17|
|Melting point t ° C||920 ° С|
|Heat of fusion kJ / mol||8.5|
|Thermal conductivity K [W / (m · K)]||13.4|
|Heat of evaporation kJ / mol||402|
The abundance of lanthanides is subject to a general pattern: elements with an even number are encountered more often than with odd ones. Only about two hundred minerals are known, of which about 70 are rare-earth minerals containing impurities of these elements. This shows that such elements are not so rare, and the «rare» — the common old name of lanthanides — is only a tribute to the past. For example, cerium is greater on earth than lead, and the rarest rare earth metals are much more abundant than mercury. The problem lies in their absent-mindedness and technical sophistication.
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