Cobalt is the 27th element of a side subgroup of the period IV, VIII groups of the periodic table where it is marked Co (lat. Cobaltum). Is a silvery-white metal. A thin layer of oxide may give it a yellowish, bluish or pinkish hue.
The name cobalt comes from the German Kobold, which means dwarf cave. When roasting the cobalt ores contain arsenic emit toxic volatile oxide AsO. Ancient Norwegians believed frequent poisoning in the smelting of silver mountain machinations of the evil spirit, so called the ore its name. In 1735, Georg Brandt a Swedish chemist, was able to allocate from the ore of the then unknown metal, and called people’s nickname. The chemist also found that the derivatives of this element gives a blue tint to the glass than was used in the days of ancient Babylon and Assyria.
Cobalt is a hard metal with two modifications: α-modification stable at t° to 427 °C, and the modification of β- (face-centered cubic lattice), when t° 427 °C — 1120 °C. Cobalt is ferromagnetic with a Curie point equal to 1121 °C.
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||58,93|
|Oxidation||3, 2, 0, -1|
|The melting temperature t°C||1494°C|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||15,48|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||100|
|Heat of evaporation kJ/mol||389,1|
— catalysis of chemical reactions;
— an alloy which contains up to 50% with chromium and vanadium, used for permanent magnets;
— alloying With capable to improve the heat resistance of the alloy and improve the mechanical quality steel, making it the tool (drills, cutters etc);
— magnetic properties of alloys With enable their use in equipment for magnetic recording, and in the cores of transformers, electric motors;
— Co silicide is an excellent thermoelectric material for thermoelectric generators with high efficiency;
— radioactive 60 From used in medicine, gamma radiography, and also for fueling nuclear boilers;
— cobalt lithium is a highly effective positive electrode in the manufacture of lithium batteries.
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