Neodymium brand, chemical structure
Neodymium (Nd) — metal white-silver color with a yellowish shade is a rare earth element of the lanthanides group. In the air easily oxidized. Was discovered by an Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach (1885), who was able to divide Didim is a rare — earth metal, previously considered a single element, neodymium, and praseodymium. The name of the first of them is given from the Greek for «new twin». Today it is produced industrially by calcium thermal recovery or by electrolysis of a melt of anhydrous chlorides of neodymium and praseodymium. Major suppliers of this metal are: USA, Ukraine, Russia, China, Scandinavian countries, Kazakhstan.
|Physical qualities Nd|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||144,24|
|The melting temperature t°C||1021°C|
|The degree of oxidation||3|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||16,5|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||7,1|
Neodymium is one of the most popular today lanthanides for the production of infrared lasers with a wavelength of about 1,067 µm, as well as powerful permanent magnets. Neodymium demand for melting colored purple glass. Oxide Nd2 O3 is an insulator, it has the lowest coefficient of expansion. Fluoride NdF3 is used in fibre optics and manufacturing high quality fiberglass. Neodymium is able to significantly consolidate thermoelectric materials based on selenides of antimony, bismuth, tellurides, as well as to enhance their thermoelectric power.
Agriculture: processed by neodymium seeds have a high germination and yield. There are promising developments with a neodymium doping of materials based on tellurium, bismuth, cesium, which has a beneficial effect on their qualities. This metal is indispensable for the alloying of structural alloys and steels. It can increase the strength of pure titanium by 50%. In the interaction of aluminum with neodymium compounds are formed, increases twice the tensile strength of each of the metals separately. From alloys of neodymium-aluminium-titanium are produced the following types of rentals: circle, sheet, wire.
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