Cerium brand, chemical structure
Cerium is a silvery white soft metal of the 3rd group of the periodic system of the chemical. items where marked CE. This rare earth element refers to the lanthanide. It has an atomic number 58, atomic weight 140,115. Opened independently from each other, the German scientists M. Clarocom and Swedish chemists-Hisinger and Berzelius. The name of this element was named after the largest asteroid — Ceres. Its content in the lithosphere is about 70g/t, and in sea water — about 5.2·10-6 mg/l. industrially it is produced by electrolysis of molten fluoride CeF3.
Chemical and physical properties
Temperature reaches melting point 799 °C, t° boiling point 3426 °C. Specific gravity at 20 °C is of 6.77 g/cm3. There are two modifications of cerium with β-hexagonal lattice and g is a cubic lattice. Temperature is 393 °C. Even at room temperature this metal is unstable in air slowly begins to oxidize, turning into a white oxide. Inorganic acids cerium dissolves readily.
|Physical quality CE|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||140,115|
|The melting temperature t°C||799°C|
|The degree of oxidation||4, 3|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||11.1 V|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||5,2|
Production of thermoelectric and abrasive materials, glass, dental coatings. The dioxide, SEO2 is in demand as a catalyst. Metallurgists alloyed with cerium, iron, and magnesium alloys. It increases the conductivity of aluminum, the strength of copper, titanium, structural steel. Adding only 1% of the CE increases the strength of materials tensile and creep strength. However, he is much cheaper than lanthanum, have a similar effect, so use more widely. When you try to fuse cerium zinc occurs explosion. With a small addition of cerium to the steel is cleaned of harmful impurities sulfur and gases. GOST 12364−84 regulates the alloying of steel. Together with other rare earth elements, alloys of cerium is in the form of wire, round, sheets, foil.
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