- Rare and refractory metals
Holmium brand, chemical structure
Holmium refers to the rare earth elements of the 3rd group of the periodic system of the chemical. elements where designated as Ho. Atomic number 67, atomic mass 164,93, with a valence of +3. When heated, it easily reacts with nitrogen, hydrogen, bromine, chlorine, but is resistant to fluorine. Is a light-gray soft metal, a stable isotope of the group of lanthanides, which are easily machined. Get it by recovery of fluoride HoF3 calcium. This element was discovered in the «arnieboy earth» Swiss scientist John. Sora by spectral analysis. Chemist from Sweden P. Kleve was able to allocate holmium oxide, naming it in honor of Holmia — the ancient name of the Swedish capital. In the water of the oceans, the contents of holmium — about 2.2x10--7%, and in the earth’s crust is 1.3x10--4%, as a rule, it is found in ores of other rare-earth metals — bastnasite, Apatite, monazite, gadolinite.
|Physical quality But|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||164,93|
|The degree of oxidation||3|
|The melting temperature t°C||1474°C|
|The heat of fusion kJ/mol||n/a|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||16,2|
|Heat of evaporation kJ/mol||301|
Belongs to the group of non-ferrous metals. Widely demanded in metallurgy, nuclear energy, manufacturing, microelectronics, thermoelectric materials, lasers. The pole pieces holmium superconducting magnets provide a powerful magnetic field. Literally indispensable is the alloy of erbium-holmium. A radioactive isotope Ho-166 analytical chemistry is used as radioactive indicator. Holmium ions are capable of generating infrared laser light with a wavelength of about 2 microns. Salt of holmium is used to activate the phosphors, the production of special glasses that absorb ionizing radiation. This metal is used in such products as bars, rods, wire, sheet. GOST 23862.3−79 regulates the determination of impurities of oxides of holmium spectral method.
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