Tullius brand, chemical structure
Thulium is a silvery — white soft metal belonging to the group of lanthanides. Is a rare earth element of the 3rd group of the periodic system of the chemical. elements Tm where indicated. Atomic number 69. The atomic weight 168,9. Opened Swedish scientist Cleve in 1879 in the study of impurities to the oxide of erbium. The pure metal was obtained only after 30 years, Richardson, who have measured its atomic weight. It received its name in honor of the legendary Northern Islands of Thule. The content in the lithosphere is 2.7·10-5%, and the most rich minerals are xenotime, euxenite, monazite.
Chemical and physical properties
Tullius with his 9,318 specific gravity g/cm3 refers to the heavy lanthanides. Easy to be processed. The melting point is about 1545 °C, t° boiling equal 1947 °C. Readily soluble in inorganic acids.
|Physical quality Tm|
|Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||168,9342|
|The melting temperature t°C||1545°C|
|The degree of oxidation||3, 2|
|The thermal conductivity K [W/(m·K)]||16,9|
|Molar volume cm3/mol||18,1|
Nuclear energy, production of specially absorbing radiation. Thulium ions are excited by infrared radiation with a wavelength of 1.91 µm are used for the production of lasers with tunable frequency. Tullius is a valuable thermoelectric material. Also used in magnetic media. Isotope 170 Tm is used in portable x-ray machines and metal detectors. Developed the use of thulium as fuel for nuclear boilers. Monotelluride thulium has a significant electromotive force with high efficiency. It is the basis of thermocouples, adjusts characteristics of a semiconductor lead telluride. Together with other rare earth elements, alloys thulium made in the form of wire, round, sheets, foil.
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